Restructuring of a vineyard and planting
Grubbing up Vineyard Plots
Selection of plots to be potentially uprooted
Is the parcel of good economical value?
Are the plots healthy?
Is the overall current health status problematic for the vineyard?
What Plot to Grub Up Next and When
How to determine the uprooting order
What is an ideal average annual percentage to grub up?
How to determine removal frequency?
Receiving, preparing and planting vines
What type of vine to choose?
Which season is best for replanting?
What are good seedling preparation practices?
Maintaining young vines
Protecting young vines
When should you replace young vines that did not recover from transplanting?
Choosing and Installing a Trellising System
Types of stakes to install
Metal wire, anchorage, and spacers
Restructuration of the surroundings, soil and subsoil
Setting up a drainage system
Tilling and outlining the new plot
Soil rest duration
Soil cover: biomass production and soil protection
Choice of cover crop(s)
The fertilization plan
Plant Material Choice
Selecting a varietal
Which grape varietals are allowed in the AOC?
Which grape varieties are suitable to the plot's soil type?
What is the plot's environment like?
If several varietals are possible, how do you choose one?
Specific vine choice
Massal selection or clonal selection?
Clone selection criteria
Experiment findings: Massal selection of Cabernet Sauvignon
Which rootstocks are best adapted to the plot’s soil type?
Examples of the thought-process
Experiment results: Rootstalk comparisons
Selection of the graft type
Selection of plant traits
Should the plants be treated with a hot water treatment?
Should the vines have mycorrhizae?
Planting method choices
Guidelines for planting options
In which direction should the rows face?
Choosing the vine trunk's shape
What is the optimum height for a vine trunk?
What type of foliage structure is possible?
What pruning type is best adapted to the chosen trellising system?
Pruning and other winter tasks
What pruning methods are used on the properties?
What is the best way to maintain the flow of sap?
Results of late pruning trials at Château Latour
Additional Winter Tasks
Vine shoot management
Preparing for replacement planting
Bending and attachment of the vines
Management through tillage
Different tools and their application
How should tilling be organized?
Weed management using plant cover or mulching
What the effects of mulching on the soil and the vine?
What types of mulching are availible and best-suited to the circumstances?
The deterioration rate of mulch
Weed management using grass cover crops
What is a grass cover crop?
Why consider planting a grass cover crop?
When should grass cover be avoided?
Should the plot be partially or fully covered with grass?
Establishing a natural spontaneously grown grass cover
Implementing a sown grass cover
Establishing the grass cover
What is debudding?
When should it be carried out and can it be paired with another task?
How is debudding conducted?
What is desuckering and what is its purpose?
When is it carried out and can it be combined with another task?
Can some shoots be left on the vine?
Thinning or removal of secondary growth
What is thinning and what purpose does it serve?
Is it necessary for every plot?
What does lifting the vines involve?
How many times is lifting carried out and how long does it take?
What does tying involve?
What are the constraints associated with tying?
Trimming and Topping
What is topping? How is it different from trimming?
What is the purpose of trimming and topping?
When should the first trimming be carried out? When generally should topping and trimming be carried out?
What are the risks of trimming at the wrong time or too intensively?
What is the maximum desirable foliage height?
What type of trimming machine should be used? How many rows can be trimmed at once?
An alternative technique: vine braiding
Alternatives to traditional espalier trellising
Vines trained on stakes
What is leaf thinning?
What criteria should be applied when making leaf thinning decisions?
When should leaf thinning be carried out ?
What leaf thinning methods are there?
Trials to determine the impact of leaf thinning on the bunches' microclimate
What is the purpose of bunch thinning?
Should thinning be carried out systematically?
How many people are needed to carry out thinning at the véraison stage?
How aggressive should thinning be?
Disease and pest management
Fungal disease management
Oidium or powdery mildew
Phomopsis dieback or excoriosis
Wood disease and virus management
Black wood or Stolbur phytoplasma
Esca or Black Measles
Black Dead Arm
Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV)
Black foot disease
Green leafhopper or vine leafhopper
Flavescence Dorée leafhopper
European Grapevine Moth (Lobesia botrana) and Vine Moth (Eupoecilia ambiguella)
Blister mite or grape bud mite disease
Spotted-wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii)
Non-chemical alternatives for pest and disease control methods
Alternative methods to fight pest and diseases
Plant extracts used to complement treatments
Treatment equipment and practices
Types of treatment equipment in winegrowing
Different types of sprayers
Different types of nozzles
Good treatment practices
Selecting appropriate equipment for the type of treatment
Correctly calculating doses
Personal safety precautions
Checking settings and inspecting equipment
Taking weather conditions into account
Choice of sprayer and settings
How many sprayers are necessary to treat a vineyard?
Filling and rinsing tanks
The importance of the type of tractor adjustment for sprayer operation
Frequency of treatments
What is the TFI?
What doses are taken into account?
How to decide when to re-apply a treatment
Example: Treatment preparation at Château Latour
General information regarding fertilization
What is the difference between a fertiliser and a soil improver
What are the main mineral elements and the consequence of deficiencies?
Types of analyses used when decision making
Petiole and leaf blade analysis
Analysis of branches
Rationale for liming
Is it necessary to lime this year?
Which liming product should be used?
How much product is required?
What are the steps to follow when liming?
Choosing to add fertiliser or soil improver
What are the criteria when choosing between a fertiliser and a soil improver?
Selecting the properties of soil improvers and fertilisers
Determining the quantity of soil improvers and fertilisers to apply
Decision-making review: order of priority of the parameters to be corrected
Why is replacement planting necessary?
What is the "normal" annual replacement planting percentage for a plot?
How often should replacement planting be carried out?
Preparation for replacement planting
When is the best time to remove diseased vines?
What is the best time of year for replacement planting?
Determining the number of replacement vines to order
What is the procedure for making the planting holes?
Choice of plant material
Plant material requirements for replacement planting
Good practices for replacement planting
Before using young grapevines
Two-step replacement planting: an alternative approach.
How should vines be protected after replacement planting?
Different regeneration techniques
Managing Climate Extremes
How can hailstorms be detected?
What preventive measures can be taken against hail?
What are the best practices after a hailstorm?
What are the different types of frost?
How are vines affected by frost?
What are the symptoms of frost damage?
What preventive measures can be taken against frost?
What are good practices after a frost?
Flooding or heavy rain
What are the consequences of flooding/heavy rain?
What preventive measures can be taken against floods and heavy rain?
What are good practices after flooding or heavy rain?
What damage can heatwaves cause to vines?
What preventive measures can be taken against heatwaves?
What are good practices after heatwaves?
What are the consequences of a severe water deficit?
What are the current regulations in production areas?
What types of irrigation systems are there?
When is irrigation necessary? What criteria should be taken into account?
Irrigation management tools
When is the best time to irrigate?
How much water is needed?
Alternatives to irrigation
Determining harvest order
Berry maturity evaluation tests
Defining varying degrees of maturity
Monitoring the progression of technological maturity
Monitoring the progression of phenolic maturity
Feedback from experimentation: impact of the harvest date on aromatic profile
Tasting the berries
The benefits of tasting and evaluation criteria
Is it advantageous to harvest based on different aromatic profiles?
Where is the best place to taste the berries?
Volume management and personnel logistics
Determining volumes and/or yields
Defining a daily harvesting rhythm
Criteria for choosing a blend of plots or plot-based vinification depending on vatting facilities
Vinification of an individual plot or a batch of plots with similar identities
A possibility of blending according to several criteria
Several vinification styles for the same batch
Adapting to real volumes: managing partially filled vats
Consideration of the overall health of the vineyard
Is the Botrytis cinerea fungus present?
What is the upcoming weather forecast?
Are the berries showing any symptoms of withering?
Arrival of the harvest: determining the quality criteria to be respected
Options to ensure optimum health
Preventing the development of Botrytis before the harvest
Sorting in the vineyard during the harvest
Sorting in the winery
Maintaining daily targets during the harvest
Ensure easy access to the grapes
Additional time when several rounds of picking are required
Adapting the daily picking schedule to the vineyard's characteristics
Options for preserving the bunches' integrity and their qualitative potential until vatting
The optimal moment to harvest
Types of harvest containers
Storing the grapes before processing
Stem treatment and the possibility of using the entire harvest
The impact of stems on the wine
A variable percentage of stems determined according to several criteria
Berry treatment options at vatting
Vinification tank filling process
Managing the unexpected
Is the vat homogeneous and representative at this stage?
What subsequent analyses are relevant?
Basic inputs in the vinification process
Management of available nitrogen
Use of indigenous yeasts for fermentation
Use of selected yeasts for fermentation
Oxygen management from vatting to post-fermentation maceration
Choice of extraction procedure
What compounds are of interest for extraction?
Is a cold pre-fermentation maceration necessary?
Is bleeding necessary?
What types of extraction are possible?
What guiding principles can be applied to extraction?
Management of problems during alcoholic fermentation
Practices to minimize the risk of defects during fermentation
What to do in the event of sluggish or stuck fermentation
What to do if an odour of ethyl acetate or acetic acid is detected prior to fermentation
What to do if signs of reduction appear
How long and at what temperature should post-fermentation maceration take place?
Is further pumping over / punching down possible or required?
What types of analysis can improve decision making?
Is there a risk if malolactic fermentation begins while the wine is still macerating?
Detailed explanation of white wine vinification
What is malolactic fermentation?
What reactions take place during malolactic fermentation?
What conditions influence malolactic fermentation?
Selecting a bacterial inoculant and application method
What is the wine's profile?
If the decision is to inoculate, what is the procedure to follow?
Container selection for MLF
Management and monitoring of MLF
Monitoring malic acid levels
What can be done if MLF is sluggish?
Treatment of wine at the end of malolactic fermentation
Is it necessary to clarify the environment?
Is it advisable to chill the wine?
Run-off and pressing of red wines
Choice of free-run method
Choosing the run-off method
Wine treatment following run-off
Choice of red wine pressing methods
Overview of pressing
What are the differences between horizontal and vertical presses?
Choosing the correct pressure and duration
Deciding the separation between pressing stages
Is it necessary to inert the wine during pressing?
Selecting a container for pressed wine
Should direct reincorporation be implemented?
Is it necessary to control the pressed wine temperature?
What volumes are needed to separate and work with the press wines in the best way?
Should pressed wines be clarified before barrelling?
Tasting pressed wines: evaluating quality
What criteria should be used to taste press wines?
When are the press wines blended?
Methods to improvement press wine quality
When should sulphites be added before MLF?
Should micro-oxygenation be applied to press wines?
Can new barrels be used to age press wines?
Can oenological inputs be used to protect press wines?
Is stirring the fine lees possible in press wines?
Choosing a wine ageing method
Possible ageing methods and their benefits
Benefits of ageing in vats
Benefits of barrel ageing
Benefits of ageing in amphorae
What ageing method is suitable for which type of wine?
Choice of ageing conditions
Temperature and humidity
Determining the length of the ageing period
Criteria for blending selection
Examples of blending methodology
Barrel characteristic selection
Choice of wood grain type
Choice of wood origin
Choice of drying time for staves
Choice of toasting
Choice of barrel volume
Choosing the percentage of new wood
Matching the wood to the wine
What are the criteria for defining a wine's profile?
Barrel preparation prior to use
What is the procedure to ensure that barrels ordered comply with requirements?
What are the preparatory steps prior to the initial filling?
Wine operations during the ageing process
Stirring of the lees
Overview - Oxygen fundamentals
Oxygen during ageing
What effect does oxygen have on wine?
Management of dissolved gases
Antioxidants and oxidation catalysts
Oxygen intake caused by wine operations during the ageing process
Characteristics of containers regarding wine's exposure to oxygen
Ageing in barrels
Ageing in vats
Ageing in amphorae
Microbiological monitoring during ageing
Review of microorganisms that cause wine defects during wine ageing
Theoretical overview of factors influencing the appearance of microorganisms
Analytical means for monitoring spoilage microorganisms
Procedures in case of contamination
Preparation of wine prior to bottling
Different filterability measurements for a wine
Adapting different clarification methods to the wine's requirements
What are the existing filtration systems and their features?
Adjustments to wine after filtration
Managing bottling supplies
Quality control of bottles
Choice and quality control of stoppers
What materials are available and what are their characteristics?
Selection of cork batches and quality control
Management of the bottling process
Bottling system quality control
Monitoring bottle filling
An encyclopedia of vine-growing and wine-making ressources
Molecule reminiscent of cloves. It is also produced by B. Bruxellensis but its content is generally 8 times lower than that of 4-ethyl-phenol. Detection threshold of 100 µg/L in wine.
Molecule with a distinct scent like that of a stable, horse sweat, and/or leather when present in wines. Produced by B. Bruxellensis. Detection threshold of 500 µg/L in wine.
They are organic or mineral substances which clean by dissolving stains. They have a relatively low pH (<6).
Corresponds to the sum of all free and salified acids. In wine, the predominant acid present is acetic acid.
Actronony describes a plant's tendancy to direct the sap towards the shoot tip thereby encouraging the development of terminal buds.
More commonly known as a 'weed', a plant which grows somewhere naturally without having been intentionally planted. Usually the winegrower does not desire its presence as it can compete with the vines.
This refers to the absorption of water by the plant's roots. When the plant is very deep-rooted, or if there is clay which stores water so the vine can assimilate it over a long period of time, there will be a steady water supply. On the contrary, the water supply is likely to be more irregular in shallow soils without deep roots and if the soil structure does not have a good buffering capacity.
Also known as a rod or a lignified shoot, a long wood with 3 or more buds.
A base or alkaline product is a substance which has a high to very high pH (>10) and gets rid of stains and dirt by breaking them down and making them soluble. Soda is a strong base and is generally used to clean the vats.
Traditionally, this involves stirring the lees with a stick, but it can also be carried out using a paddle or any type of object that creates a vortex or sets the lees into constant motion.
This describes the tendancy of a soil to form a crust on its surface after rainfall. This surface crust limits water permability and drainage thereby increasing risks of water erosion.
Black Dead Arm is a wood disease that has been attributed to a fungi of the Botryosphaeriaceae family, it has long been confused with Esca because of the degree of similarity between their symptoms.
Bicarbonate of soda (also known as sodium bicarbonate or sodium hydrogen carbonate) is a white powder with the chemical formula NaHCO3 and it is used as cleaning agent. It has antibacterial, antimicrobial and antifungal properties and is also a disinfectant.
This tillage action loosens the top few centimetres of the uppermost soil layer - known as the first horizon - to encourage deep root growth. A light superficial tilling is often carried out by machine when the soil is prepared for planting.
This is an expression that defines the absence of lenticels on one or both ends of the cork. They are thus smooth and without defect allowing a better legibility of the marking, ensuring the absence of dust.
This acronym stands for 'Ramial chipped wood', woodchips that are made from the young growth of vines (branches and shoots) which are ground up and then used on the soil surface as mulch. Generally, it is best to use wood from these young growths that measures no more than 7-8cm in diamater as it will better humificate the soil once applied. This type of wood is rich in lignin, a polymer which is slowly decomposed by fungi. It can also cause a nitrogen deficency.
The C/N ratio (Carbon/Nitrogen mass ratio) is an indicator of the mineralization rate for organic matter. When this ratio is very high (>15), it means that mineralization is slow. This can be due to a lack of nitrogen and/or to a low degradation activity (soil lacking in vitality). When this ratio is between 12 and 15, it means that the mineralization of OM is correct When this ratio is lower than 12, it means that mineralization is very fast: soil vitality is very high and/or a likely excess of nitrogen and an organic matter deficit.
The Cation-Exchange Capacity is a measure of how many cations can be retained in the soil water. The CEC varies according to the type of soil : it is likely be higher in clay than in a sandy soil. The CEC can loosely be likened to the soil's "food store".
The area on the shoot between the last bud and the cut.
A vine leaf discoloration which can range from a pale green to a yellowish white. This discoloration is essentially due to a deficiency in one or more of the elements essential to the proper fonction of photosynthesis. Causes can be to due a lack of iron, magnesium, nitrogen or manganese.
CC= K/Q0 Where Q0 = the initial flow rate (If Q0 is high then 1/Q_0 is low, the match between the wine and the filter media is good) And K = the increase of the filtered volume in time (If K is high, the clogging factor is more important)
A mixture of clay and humus (the stable part of organic matter) which binds cations and makes them available for the plant in the soil water.
Of conical shape/ when discussing vats of varying degrees of conicity, this means that according to the manufacturer, they can have a different angle.
A renewal spur or short shoot on which there are two free buds maximum.
This refers to a natural hazard which occurs after flowering, when some flowers drop off or "shatter" and are not fertilised. If some flowers do not set fruit, there is a corresponding loss of production and yields are reduced. Climatic conditions can have an impact on the success of fruit set.
GVFL is a viral disease characterized by the progressive weakening of the vine. In the spring, vegetation languishes, the branches are deformed in a "zig-zag" pattern and the internodes become shorter. The shape of the leaves is altered, growing in often an asymetric form and their teeth are deformed.
Also known as Brassicaceae. The most distinguishing feature of this plant family is its ability to assimilate large quantites of potassium and phosphorus. Consequently, they limit the loss by leaching of elements vital for the vine. Cruciferae also have a positive effect on soil structure at some depth.
A tank generally located in the vat house or outside, which contains the wine to be filtered and then bottled. When bottling occurs far from the vat house, these tanks provide the suitable volume containers to hold the wine to be connected to the bottling system.
One of the components of the bottling apparatus. The tank volume can vary but still allows the wine to flow into the spouts. It should be noted that the volume of these tanks is increasingly smaller on the newer versions of such machines.
This is a type of semi-deep tillage. It can effectively break up hardpans that form in the upper soil horizons. It works best at a depth of 20-30 cm and this can be achieved with a cultivator.
This is a product which removes greasy stains. These products can give the impression that rinsing has been poorly carried out as foam forms on the rinsing water.
This product removes red stains as well as limescale that builds up inside tanks.
This product is used to remove and get rid of limescale and chalky deposits which build up on a tank's inner surface.
It is a cleaning product with surfactant characteristics, which, like soap, removes dirt.
Also called dryland farming or aridoculture, is the opposite of "wet-farming" where crops are irrigated in arid or semi-arid environments. A full spectrum of farming operations exists to facilitate moisture retention thereby achieving an optimal crop cultivation.
This technique involves the removal of lateral shoots and it is frequently practiced at the same time as leaf-thinning.
The berries are burnt by the sun's rays. This can occur naturally during episodes of intense heat and sunlight and can be exacerbated if the leaves are thinned out late in the season.
This is an alphabetic scale which describes the different phenological stages of grapevines. The scale starts with the letter A for "winter bud" or "scaled bud" and finishes with the letter O for "leaf abscission". Other numerical scales also exist.
An act of draining to separate the wine from the marc, specifically the wine that drains is called free run wine. Once removed from the vat it is placed in a separate vat or directly barreled. The marc will then be decanted and pressed.
A group of tannins commonly present in wood and notably oak used in the ageing of wine. This group includes, but is not limited to, castalagin, roburins and vescalagin. These tannins have a strong antioxidant properties.
Laterals are secondary shoots which grow off the current season's principal shoot. They can be fertile, producing grapes from a secondary flowering, and will develop further when the tip of the principal shoot is cut back. This is a summer pruning method known as topping, tipping or hedging.
A grapevine wood disease brought about by several fungal agents (P. chlamydospora, P. aleophilum and F. mediterranea), which, if it manifests itself in its slow-progessing form, can be treatable, whereas if the infection is acute it is incurable.
Etiology is the study of the causes and factors that make a disease. Etiology's application in viticulture allows a better understanding of contamination mechanisms regarding fungi, notably mildew or powdery mildew.
A type of grapevine decline disease characterized by it's development within the vine's trunk by the lignicolous fungus Eutypa lata. It is incurable and considerably reduces the vine's production potential.
This phenomenon occurs when soil microorganisms, finding their own nitrogen supply to be insufficent, use nitrogen in the soil to break down organic matter, which is richer in carbon than nitrogen (especially when mulched with RCW). Consequently, there is a nitrogen shortage in the soil and this can be dangerous for some crops such as the grapevine, should they also be deficient in this element.
Characterized by the yellowing of the vine's leaves caused by phytoplasma, using the leafhopper, Scaphoideus titanus as its vector. The disease has drastic consequences leading to the overall wilting of the vineyard.
This corresponds to Baggiolini phase I and it is a crucial phenological stage, as the petal caps are shed revealing the stamen and the pistil.
Malolactic fermentation: the transformation of malic acid into lactic acid by lactic bacteria. The outcome of this transformation correlates to a lower acidity and increases the aromatic complexity of the wine.
A fungus can be designated by its perfect or sexual form (teleomorph) or by its imperfect form (asexual or anamorph). It is also possible that one of the two forms is no longer found in nature.
This is the limit in mm of impregnation of the wood by a wine.
Gramineae or Poaceae is a family of plants known as grasses. They sprout inbetween the rows and have an impact on the surface soil structure yet do not compete with the vines.
The ratio of canopy height-to-row spacing (distance between two rows) should ideally be between 0.6 and 0.8. It is an indicator of the rate of photosynthesis for trellised vines.
3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine is the most important compound of the pyrazine family responible for green pepper aromas in wines made from some grape varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon and Fer.
When pieces of the heating furnace fall into the liquid glass then solidifys creating a brittle area. It can cause a severe risk of breakage and is thus a major defect.
IC= (t400ml) - (2*t200ml) Where t400ml is the time needed for 400 ml of wine to flow through the membrane at constant pressure (2 bars) And t200ml is the time needed for 200 ml of wine to flow through the membrane at constant pressure
A technique whereby an inert gas - or mixture of gases (nitrogen, CO2, argon) - is used to fill the headspace of a given vessel (a tank for example) and displace the oxygen. Consequently, this decreases the risk of oxidisation of the must and limits the proliferation of spoilage microorganisms.
A measure of the responsiveness of a material to temperature variations. For example, wood and concrete have a better thermal inertia than stainless steel
Some insects are vectors, carrying diseases or viruses from plant to plant (their life cycles coincide). Typically they are insects that feed on the vines using piercing-sucking mouthparts which transmit the pathogen and thereby infect the plant.
The Chlorosis Potency Index is a ratio of active limestone (%) to assimilable/feasibly extractable iron (mg/kg). It is an indicator of iron chlorosis risk. Below 10, the soil is considered to be weak on a chlorotic scale. When this indicator is over 60, the soil is highly chlorotic.
The Skin Permeability Index, also defined by the acronym SPI, is one of the two methods to evaluate skin maturity evolution. As the grape ripens, the skin becomes thinner and the wall structure degrades little by little making skin tearing more likely. The permeability is measured in Aw units and ranges from 0.96 for a film with little or no degradation to 0.86 for a degraded film that dilates easily.
Leguminosae or Fabaceae are more commonly called leguminous plants. This family of plants is known for its ability to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere and the soil. They are used in viticulture as secondary cover crops, which are mainly planted inbetween the rows. When the legume dies, it releases stored or 'fixed' nitrogen into the soil as it decomposes and this is taken up by the vine.
A type of pore which forms from the vine's bark and crosses into the cork with a "trench" like shape, which adds roughnesses. This allows gas exchanges between the tree, for example, the cork oak, and the atmosphere.
This is a type of leaching and occurs when rainfall carries solid, non soluble substances from the soil towards the underground water tables. These substances are numerous and varied. Sometimes we refer to leaching from clay or silt particles.
A seedling has emerged when the cotyledons become visible on the soil surface.
It is one of the principal components of wood which secures the plant's stability and impermeability. Lignin is mainly broken down by funghi, but as it is quite resistant it decays slowly, making it an ideal material for mulch (RCW is rich in lignin).
This occurs when rainwater carries dissolved partciles, for example phytosanitary products or nitrates, downward into the underground water supply.
These are the plant's responses to one or several stressful situations (water shortage, drought, green pruning) and they may manifest themselves in a number of ways: for example, frequent topping may prompt a more vigorous growth of secondary shoots or green harvesting may result in heavier remaining berries. Usually this compenstation effect is limited to about 30% of the plant's activity.
A wooden board obtained by cutting a log in the direction of the medullary rays. Staves used together form the framework of a future barrel.
A ripening defect where the already fertilized grapes abort. The result is clusters with normal sized berries and much smaller berries. The millerandage can be distributed in a scattered way within the cluster or can be present in the whole cluster.
3-Methyl-2,4-nonanedione is an aromatic molecule responsible for aromatic notes such as prune, stone fruits or aniseed depending on its concentration. It is a marker for red wines that have undergone premature oxidation.
Organic Matter (OM) usually sits between 0.5 - 3%. It is made up of carbon-based compounds of animal or plant origin that come from decaying vegetation and humus. Sufficent organic matter is essential for maintaining healthy soil and structure.
Pre-fermentation cold soaking is a type of maceration which takes place at a low temperature before the alcoholic fermentation begins. It can be carried out on white or red grapes. The duration as well as the temperature (min 5°C) are variable.
This acronym stands for "Normalized Difference Vegetative Index". It is an indicator which varies between -1 and 1 and is obtained by remote sensing. It can be used to map vineyards and monitor the vines active growth and productivity.
Small parasitic worms that are vectors of the Grapevine fanleaf virus.
This assesses the ability of a material to be rid of dirt or stains. It depends on the surface condition of the material in question, for example a smooth surface like that of stainless steel is less likely to attract dirt than a coarse surface like rough concrete. However, the cleanability also depends on the material's state of wear and tear (scratches, the lining detaches...) and its set up - sharp angles and lack of access makes it more difficult to clean a vessel.
This concept is defined in many different ways by the scientific community but it usually is taken to mean the position or role of an organism, species or population in an ecosytem and how this species meets its survival needs within this environment. It also describes the ecological interactions between species and how in turn they alter and affect their ecosystem.
Fruit set corresponds to stage J on the Baggiolini scale and follows the flowering. This phenological stage is associated with the swelling of the ovaries further to successful fertilisation.
The bud(s) that develop at the base of a cane or spur. Often non-fruting in Vitis Vinifera, these buds are not counted.
An ovoid tank is an egg-shaped tank with no corners.
The purpose of trellising is to support the grapevine and enable the vine-grower to shape its growth trajectory. It is achieved by attaching the trunks and possibly the canes using several wires and ties. Trellising aims to improve production quality as well as yields by maximising leaf exposure to sunlight.
These are non-fruiting shoots that grow on the grapevine trunks. These shoots are unwanted and frequently removed as they drain energy and divert the sap flow from the developing fruit. However, if well-positioned, they can be used as replacement shoots to correct grapevine spacing.
It is a product which coats the surface of stainless steel tanks protecting their exterior from corrosion and wear and tear.
Penetrometry measurement is one of the two criteria used to evaluate skin maturation. As a grape ripens the skin becomes thinner and the wall structure begins to break down little by little which makes the skins more prone to tearing. The thickness of the skin can be measured with a penetrometer, the data can range from 1.2 kg for thick skin to 0.4 for a thin skin which would therefore be more sensitive to Botrytis.
The hydrogen potential also refered to as pH measures the hydrogen ion quantity in a must solution. More simply, the pH measures the acidity of a solution. At full maturity, the pH is between 3 and 4, sometimes more depending on the grape varietal and the climatic conditions.
A microscopic aphid originally from the eastern United States which attacks the roots of grapevines. In the late 19th century it arrived in Europe devestating vineyards.
They are parasites without cell walls that multiply in the plant, specifically in the phloem.
Generally old vines of a different grape variety from the one that is predominantly planted on one plot. For example, the instance of a few older Merlot vines on a Cabernet Sauvignon plot.
An auxiliary organism is defined by the AFPP as an animal, predator or parasite which, by its way of life, contributes to the destruction of pests potentially harmful to crops and play an important role in Integrated Pest Management.
All the measures taken for disease prevention. The prophylactic methods available to viticulturists are many and varied, ranging from the removal of dead wood and roots to avoid grapevine trunk diseases, to leaf-thinning, as the removal of excess leaves can reduce fungal disease pressure.
The carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) ratio is a ratio of the mass of carbon to the mass of nitrogen in a substance. This indicator allows better understanding of decomposition rates regarding organic matter in the soil. When it is high, >14, nitrogen decomposes slowly, whereas when it is <8, the decomposition rate is too fast, suggesting high rates of activity of soil microorganisms.
The water retained by the soil, which forms a film on the dry soil in turn used by the vine.
Rinsing / Cleaning / Disinfection
Acronym of the ratio which describes the relationship between the Available Water Capacity and the Soil Water Storage, also known as Field Capacity or Water Retention Capacity. The SWS refers to the volume or quantity of water held in the soil or soil horizon after the excess has drained away, in other words, it refers to the maximum amount of water the soil can hold, which may or may not be available to the plant. The buffering capacity of a soil depends on the soil's make up (particle size, texture, structure...), the finer the texture of the soil, greater is the surface area in contact with water: a clayey soil with have a higher buffering capacity than a sandy soil.
A decision-making tool using a criteron-based rating system to help a company resolve multiple issues. In viticulture, for example, for a given plot of land, a score is assigned to every criterion (heterogeneity, vigor, disease, etc.) on a previously defined scale. The score (or total sum) obtained for this plot under study is compared to a threshold or average value and/or to the scores of the other plots in order to establish the final classification.
A product that captures ions and metals, to prevent them from precipitating and forming deposits on tank walls.
External Leaf Area refers to the surface area of leaves exposed to the sun and it is measured in square meters.
Molecular fraction of free SO2. This form is the most active and its value varies according to the temperature, the pH and the TAV.
The fraction of sulfites bound to other wine molecules such as sugars or aldehydes.
Sulfites not bound to other molecules that are free to protect wine from the effects of oxygen and or microorganisms.
The sum of the free SO2 and combined SO2.
The soil is drained when all the water (especially rainwater) that fills the empty spaces (gaps) and the soil's macropores has drained away by gravity. It is no longer saturated and is then retained in the form of a liquid film easily accessible by the roots.
A deep decompacting operation using the fissuring principle. Carried out with the subsoiler (straight tooth gear attachement) or with the Ripper (curved tooth gear attachment), it is also possible to work with curved blades. Subsoiling will be efficient to break deep massive horizons, up to 60cm approximately.
Racking consists of transfering the wine from one storage container (barrel or tank) to another. The objective is to eliminate any lees that have accumulated on the bottom as well as oxygenate the wine.
Any type of stress that is imposed on a plant as the direct result of an environmental change. Examples of an abiotic stress correspond to any of the following: mineral deficiency or excess, heavy rainfall, hail storms or heat waves.
A stress that is applied to the plant resulting from the actions of a living organism on a seperate living organism. For instance, biotic stress caused by a pathogenic organism's actions that lives on a vine.
Temperature, Mechanical action, Concentration, Action or contact time. These are the four elements crucial to maintain proper hygiene.
A tool with a spiral-shaped head making it possible to drill holes in the soil ranging from a few centimeters to a few dozen centimeters in depth. Generally used for soil analysis, but its also suitable in instances of planting / complantation.
TCA (2,4,6 trichloroanisole): is the molecule responsible for a corked wine. The molecule is characterized by a cork odor, wet cardboard or damp cellars. TCA is synthesized from chlorophenols and requires certain chlorinated molecules to be present, often caused by poor hygiene practices or cleaning products that contain chlorine.
Green pruning or summer pruning is comprised of different actions carried out in the vineyard during the active vegetative growth period, such as pinching back, topping, desuckering, de-stemming, as well as leaf thinning or cluster thinning.
Sorting line automation of the cellar grape reception area is increasingly being developed for manually or mechanically harvested grapes. Such equipment allows visual sorting, specifically using cameras, lighting and electronic systems to visualize the entire harvest to make a qualitative selection (leaf rejection, pink berries...).
Grape caterpillars, also known as grape berry moths, are the caterpillars of the Eudemis and Cochylis moths. Their larvae attack grapes, penetrating into the berries to eat their contents.
Vmax = (t2-t1)/(t2/V2-t1/V1) Where t1 and t2 are two units of time defined by the user, usually 2 and 5 minutes respectively And V1 and V2 are the volumes respectively flowed during the times t1 and t2
No-Treatment Zone: When the plot is located in a riparian zone, near a school, a public place and health or homes, a minimum safety distances of 10 meters must be respected when any vine treatments are being applied in a non-enclosed area over aerial parts of the plants.
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Restructuring of a vineyard and planting
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